The definition of overpronation receives a lot of controversy in running and sports medical communities and there's a quite a bit of confusion and hype about that. Pronation is actually a normal movement where the rearfoot rolls inwards along with the arch of the foot flattens. We require this movement for normal biomechanics. Overpronation is when there is too much of this motion. The dilemma is that there isn't a agreement about what is normal and what's too much. The reason why it is important is that often overpronation has long been in principle linked to a huge variety of excessive use injuries in runners. As there is a shortage of evidence as to exactly what is normal, the literature is often rather perplexing on this. Quite a few studies have shown that overpronation, no matter how you decide to define this, is a risk factor for injury. Additional scientific studies have shown that it’s not a risk factor.

In the past running footwear were used based on how much the foot pronated. Those who overpronated would have a running shoe that was meant to stop that abnormal motion. Runners that had more normally aligned feet would've been sold a more neutral running footwear. Runners with a lot of the reverse motion might have been given running footwear with increased shock reduction. While this is still widely used inside the running shoe industry, the published research evidence does not support this approach.

If you have a number of scientific studies on a subject that seem to be contradictory and perplexing then scientists like to do systematic reviews and a metaanalysis that is meant to be a cautious review of all of the research without having any systematic bias. Just the better studies should be as part of the analysis that could give more weight to the standard of the study. If these analyses are done about the subject of overpronation in athletes then they commonly conclude that, yes, overpronation is really a risk factor for a running injury in runners, however it is only a modest risk factor. It's still statistically significant. These outcomes additionally suggest that there are many other factors rather than overpronation which can be a risk for a running injury.

This definitely does leave the whole concept marked by controversy with lots of uncertainty. Overpronation is a modest risk factor for a running injury, even so the suggesting of running shoes depending on pronation just isn't supported. This really is complicated for health care professionals in terms of simply how much emphasis do they put on the overpronation in terms of the managing of a overuse injury or should they place more emphasis on the other factors. With the athletic shoes stores must they carry on and promote running footwear depending on the pronation paradigm? It's still the most frequently used framework and runners find out about this within their running mags and they do count on it. Usually athletes usually do not care exactly what the scientific research says. They simply have to get much better from their a running injury and so they just want running footwear which enables them to run better and is more comfortable. Far more investigation really should be done on this plus much more training is needed on the theory.


Foot problems in those with diabetes is becoming more serious and almost reaching epidemic proportions. The reason for this high number of foot problems in those with diabetes is because the diabetes affects the nerves and the circulation to the foot. In the nerves there is reduced sensation, so that when damage is done to the foot it is not detected or felt. With regards to the circulation, this is quite substantially reduced in those with diabetes. Put these two together and it means that damage is not detected so it is generally much more severe by the time it is seen, and because of the circulation the healing from that damage is poor. This means that wounds and sores in those with diabetes easily get infected and can be quite severe. In the worst case this may even mean an amputation because the wound will not heal. Those with diabetes need to take considerable care of their feet to, firstly, prevent these problems and then, secondly, if a problem happens to detected promptly so it can be given attention.

In order to protect the foot those with diabetes need to have good fitting shoes so that damage is less likely to happen. They need to inspect the foot every day for any damage that has happened. It is also advised that those with diabetes regularly see a podiatrist to have the foot checked and any potential problems dealt with. There are a number of things that people with diabetes can do to check the sensation, such as the  Ipswich touch test. The Ipswich touch test involves lightly touching the end of the first, third, and fifth toes to see if the finger touching the toe can be felt. If you cannot feel a finger touching the end of the toe, then you are considered to be at quite a high risk for the development of foot problems and need to put all the precautions in place to prevent these from getting any worse or happening in the first place.